이드

(아라빅을 영어로 쓴 것들은 나라마다 혹은 참고문헌마다 철자가 다를 수 있다)

(Arabic), Syriac 'ida (“festival, holiday”), Turkish bayram

either of the two canonical festivals of Islam. The first of these celebrations, according to the calendar, is the 'Id al-Fitr (al-'Id as-Saghir; Kucuk Bayram; “Festival of Breaking Fast,” or “Minor Festival”), which immediately follows the fasting month of Ramadan and occupies the first three days of the tenth month, Shawwal. It is a time of official receptions and private visits, when friends congratulate one another, presents are given, new clothes are put on, and the graves of relatives are visited.

The second, the 'Id al-Adha (al-'Id al-Kabir; Kurban Bayram; “Sacrificial Feast,” or “Major Festival”), falls on the tenth and the following three days of the last month of the year, Dhu al-Hijjah. Throughout the Muslim world, all who can afford it sacrifice at this time a legal animal (sheep, goats, camels, or cattle) and then divide the flesh equally among themselves, the poor, and friends and neighbours, to commemorate the ransom of Isma'il (Ishmael) with a ram.

Holy days

The Muslim calendar (based on the lunar year) dates from the emigration (hijrah) of the Prophet from Mecca to Medina in AD 622. The two festive days in the year are the 'ids, 'Id al-Fitr celebrating the end of the month of Ramadan and the other, 'Id al-Adha (the feast of sacrifice), marking the end of the pilgrimage. Because of the crowds, 'id prayers are offered either in very large mosques or on specially consecrated grounds. Other sacred times include the “night of determination” (believed to be the night in which God makes decisions about the destiny of individuals and the world as a whole) and the night of the ascension of the Prophet to heaven. The Shi'ah celebrate the 10th of Muharram (the first month of the Muslim year) to mark the day of the martyrdom of Husayn. The Muslim masses also celebrate the death anniversaries of various saints in a ceremony called 'urs (literally, “nuptial ceremony”). The saints, far from dying, are believed to reach the zenith of their spiritual life on this occasion.

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