아마드 칸 경(Sir Syed Ahmad Khan)
사이드 아마드 칸]
||사이드 아마드 칸 경
사이드 아마드 칸 경은 교육, 정치, 종교의 개혁자였으며 19세기에 인도의 무슬림 가운데에서 "두 국가 이론(Two
Nation Theory)"의 개념을 형성한 인물이다. 그는 또한 알리가르(Aligarh)의 무함마단 앨글로-오리엔탈
칼리지(Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College)의 설립자이자 알리가르
운동(Aligarh Movement)의 리더로서 인도인들에게 영국에 대해 익히 알리고자 하였다. 또 그의 열망은
자기 나라 사람들의 마음을 열어 유럽의 문학, 과학, 기술을 가르치고자 하는 것이었다.
1817년에 델리(Delhi)에서 유명한 사이드가문(family
of Syed)에서 출생한 그는 종교, 문화적으로 무갈문학적이고 학자적인 전통가운데 교육받고 자라났다. 그의 형제들의
반대에도 불구하고 그는 1836년부터 영국정부의 하급관리로 일하였다. 그의 삶의 40년을 인도북부의 작은 마을들에서
보내면서 그는 저술에 집중하여 작가로서, 사상가로서의 명성을 얻게 되었다.
1857년의 혁명때에는 그는 영국통치를 지지하였으나 후에 영국의
정책과 태도를 신랄하게 비판하는 책자를 저술하였다. 이 기간중 그의 가장 중요한 저술로는 "충성스런 인도의
모함마단들(Loyal Mohammadans of India)"와 "인도폭동의 원인(Cause of
Indian Revolt)"을 들 수 있다.
Oct. 17, 1817, Delhi
died March 27, 1898, Aligarh, India
Sayyid also spelled Syad, or Syed, Ahmad also spelled Ahmed
Muslim educator, jurist, and author, founder of the Anglo-Mohammedan
Oriental College at Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, and the principal
motivating force behind the revival of Indian Islam in the late
19th century. His works, in Urdu, include Essays on the Life of
Mohammed (1870) and commentaries on the Bible and on the Qur'an.
In 1888 he was made a Knight Commander of the Star of India.
family, though progressive, was highly regarded by the dying Mughal
dynasty. His father, who received an allowance from the Mughal administration,
became something of a religious recluse; his maternal grandfather
had twice served as prime minister of the Mughal emperor of his
time and had also held positions of trust under the East India Company.
Sayyid's brother established one of the first printing presses at
Delhi and started one of the earliest newspapers in Urdu, the principal
language of the Muslims of northern India.
death of Sayyid's father left the family in financial difficulties,
and after a limited education Sayyid had to work for his livelihood.
Starting as a clerk with the East India Company in 1838, he qualified
three years later as a subjudge and served in the judicial department
at various places.
Ahmad had a versatile personality, and his position in the judicial
department left him time to be active in many fields. His career
as an author (in Urdu) started at the age of 23 with religious tracts.
In 1847 he brought out a noteworthy book, Athar assanadid (“Monuments
of the Great”), on the antiquities of Delhi. Even more important
was his pamphlet, “The Causes of the Indian Revolt.” During the
Indian Mutiny of 1857 he had taken the side of the British, but
in this booklet he ably and fearlessly laid bare the weaknesses
and errors of the British administration that had led to dissatisfaction
and a countrywide explosion. Widely read by British officials, it
had considerable influence on British policy.
interest in religion was also active and lifelong. He began a sympathetic
interpretation of the Bible, wrote Essays on the Life of Mohammed
(translated into English by his son), and found time to write several
volumes of a modernist commentary on the Qur'an. In these works
he sought to harmonize the Islamic faith with the scientific and
politically progressive ideas of his time.
supreme interest of Sayyid's life was, however, education?in its
widest sense. He began by establishing schools, at Muradabad (1858)
and Ghazipur (1863). A more ambitious undertaking was the foundation
of the Scientific Society, which published translations of many
educational texts and issued a bilingual journal?in Urdu and English.
institutions were for the use of all citizens and were jointly operated
by the Hindus and the Muslims. In the late 1860s there occurred
developments that were to alter the course of his activities. In
1867 he was transferred to Benares, a city on the Ganges with great
religious significance for the Hindus. At about the same time a
movement started at Benares to replace Urdu, the language cultivated
by the Muslims, with Hindi. This movement and the attempts to substitute
Hindi for Urdu in the publications of the Scientific Society convinced
Sayyid that the paths of the Hindus and the Muslims must diverge.
Thus, when during a visit to England (1869?70) he prepared plans
for a great educational institution, they were for “a Muslim Cambridge.”
On his return he set up a committee for the purpose and also started
an influential journal, Tahdhib al-Akhlaq (“Social Reform”), for
the “uplift and reform of the Muslim.” A Muslim school was established
at Aligarh in May 1875, and, after his retirement in 1876, Sayyid
devoted himself to enlarging it into a college. In January 1877
the foundation stone of the college was laid by the Viceroy. In
spite of conservative opposition to Sayyid's projects, the college
made rapid progress. In 1886 Sayyid organized the All-India Muhammadan
Educational Conference, which met annually at different places to
promote education and to provide the Muslims with a common platform.
Until the founding of the Muslim League in 1906, it was the principal
national centre of Indian Islam.
advised the Muslims against joining active politics and to concentrate
instead on education. Later, when some Muslims joined the Indian
National Congress, he came out strongly against that organization
and its objectives, which included the establishment of parliamentary
democracy in India. He argued that, in a country where communal
divisions were all-important and education and political organization
were confined to a few classes, parliamentary democracy would work
only inequitably. Muslims, generally, followed his advice and abstained
from politics until several years later when they had established
their own political organization.
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